© 2017 By Radiofrequency Safety International

Over 2 Centuries of RF Experience on Staff

English Glossary - Spanish Glossary

 

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1996 Telecommunications Act: Legislation designed to spur competition between radio and wireline carriers, signed into law by President

Clinton February 8, 1996.

5G: The next generation of wireless technology beyond communications services digital personal assistant.

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Abate: To significantly reduce or end the risk of a hazard.

Adjacent Channel Interference: A type of RF interference is experienced result when the spectral distribution of power creates an adjacent channel noise or errors in the channel to be used.

Airtime: Time spent using a real phone or radio radio.

Alphanumeric: A message menu display or readout containing both letters and numbers. Synonymous with text paging or radio messaging.

AMPS (advanced mobile phone service): The analog cellular standard.

AMTA: American Association of Mobile Telecommunications.

Amplifier: A concept used to enhance the sound in analog systems.

Antenna: A device used for radiating or receiving electromagnetic energy.

ATM: 1. The ATM that uses smart card radio. 2. Transfer Mode lessen - high technology high-speed transmission bandwidth for land line networks.

Atom: The smallest portion of an element which exhibits all properties of the element.

Athermal Effect: (or nonthermal effect) Any effect of electromagnetic energy absorption not associated with a measurable rise in temperature.

Authorized Person: A person meeting the qualifications and is competent according to regulatory standards to work and/or direct work in the work area containing possible or real hazards to an employee.

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Bandwidth: A range relative frequencies that can carry a signal without distortion on a transmission medium.

Beamwidth, Half-Power: In a plane containing the direction of the maximum lobe of the antenna pattern, the angle between the two directions in which the radiated power is one-half the maximum value of the lobe.

Broadband: Using a channel width for wide-band voice, data, and / or video serving.

BTA: Basic trading areas. BTAs (493 in the U.S.) are service areas designed by Rand McNally and adopted by the FCC.

Bundling: Grouping various telecommunications services alambran line and / or radio as a package to increase the capacity and appeal to potential customers and reduce marketing and other costs associated with delivering multiple services.

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CALEA: Communications Assistance to the Act on the Implementation of the 1994 Law enforcement agencies of law that grant the ability to intervene and to use dial-stop convenience drop the radio equipment & wireline systems.

Cap Code: A unique electronic identification pager #.

Cathodic Protection: A means of controlling corrosion of metal through use of a sacrificial metallic anode.

CDMA: Code division multiple access, an air of spread spectrum communication technology used in some digital cellular, PC and other radio networks.

CD: Compact Disc or CD-ROM

CDPD: The datoss cellular digital package, an improved cover system for transmitting & receiving datoss over cellular networks.

Cell Site: A location where the radio antenna and network communications equipment is located.

CFR: Code of Federal Regulations

Coax: Coaxial cable, a cable comprised of a center conductor, surrounded by an insulating core, with a braided or solid shield. Conductive shield surrounds the core with outside insulation.

Clone: A radio or radio phone programmed with stolen or duplicated electronic identification serial number and mobile numbered.

CMRS: The Mobile Radio Serves commercial FCC designation for any carrier or licensee whose radio network is connected to the public-switched telephone network and is operated for profit.

Collocation: The placement of multiple antennas and / or transmitters on a common gateway interface physical location of the site.

Competent Person: One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees and who has authorization to take prompt measures to eliminate problems.

Competent and Qualified Person: Certified by a competent and qualified person to be able to adequately train, educate and monitor an OSHA suggested company safety program.

Continuous exposure: Exposure for duration exceeding the corresponding averaging time.

Controlled/Occupational: The FCC maximum RF exposure levels for those persons who are fully aware of their exposure potential and can exercise control of their exposure.

CPE: The team is the premise consumption telephones, private branch changes, and other communication devices located in a home or office.

CPSC: Consumer Product Safety Commission.

Crew Chief: One that is authorized, designated, deemed competent and qualified by the employer.

CTIA: Cell Association of the Telecommunications Industry.

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Decibel (dB): Ten times the logarithm to the base ten of the ratio of two power levels.

Designated Person: A competent and qualified person selected to perform a task involving employees in the work place.

Dipole: A linear radiator (antenna), usually fed in the center, producing a maximum of radiation in the plane normal to its axis. A normal dipole is one half wavelength long.

DTV: Digital television.

Duty Cycle: Duration of transmitting time.

Duty Factor: The ratio of pulse duration to the pulse period of a periodic pulse train. A duty factor of 1.0 corresponds to continuous operations.

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Effective Radiated Power (ERP): The product of the power supplied to the antenna and its gain relative to a half-wave dipole in a given direction.

Electric Field Strength: The given strength or magnitude of the electric field expressed in units of volts per meter (V/m).

Electrical Length: The length of any electrical conductor, such as an antenna or transmission line, expressed in wavelengths, radians, or degrees.

Encryption: The conversion of data into a form, called a ciphertext, that cannot be easily understood by unauthorized people.

EME: Electromagnetic Energy.

EMR: Electromagnetic Radiation.

EPA: US Environmental Protection Agency.

Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP): The product of the power supplied to the antenna and the antenna gain in a given direction relative to an isotropic antenna.

ERMES: European Radio Messaging System.

ESMR: Specialized Mobile Radio Improved - SMR Digital Network

ETSI: European Institute of Telecommunications Standards.

Exposure: Subjection to electric, magnetic or electromagnetic fields other than those originating from physiological processes in the body and other natural phenomena.

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Facility Description: Designated call sign or user ID that will help you associate the actual users with the list of frequencies you use in your intermodulation study.

Far Field: The portion of the electromagnetic energy field where the electric (E) and magnetic (H) components of the electromagnetic wave are in an orthogonal, or right angle relationship.

FCC: The Federal Communications Commission.

Field Averaging: FCC standard that stipulates a 6-minute exposure limit for controlled and a 30 minute exposure limit for uncontrolled.

FLEX: A family of protocols to speed network transmission time and ability to Motorola

Full Duplex: Transmitting on one frequency while simultaneously receiving on a different frequency. Testing for this is automatically covered in the software.

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Gain (of an antenna): A ratio, expressed in decibels, of the action of an antenna increasing the strength of a signal.

GPS: The global positioning system. A series of 24 geosynchronous satellites that provide tracking, navigation, and location capabilities.

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Half-Duplex Operation: Transmitting and receiving on different frequencies not simultaneously (not tested in IM program because it cannot cause a problem).

Hazard Assessment: The act of detecting either real or potential hazards through the use of a recognized procedure.

Hertz: The unit for expressing frequency, ( f ). One hertz equals one cycle per second.

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IEEE: The Institute of Electricians and Electrical Engineers.

Intermodulation Product: A measurable signal at a specific frequency (or occasionally multiple signals over a specific bandwidth) generated from a combination of radiated signals, which are received at a site and which can cause interference to some desired received or protected frequency.

Internal Body Current (induced current): The current that is induced in a biological subject that is exposed to low-frequency RF fields.

Ion: An electrically charged atom or group of atoms. Positively charged ions have a deficiency of electrons, and ions are negatively charged electrons surplus. Ions are released when exposed to high frequencies of excitation.

Ionizing: A type of energy, in the upper end of the electromagnetic spectrum, that has the ability to strip electrons from molecules, thus forming a new, distinct ion or compound.

Isotropic Antenna: An antenna capable of radiating or receiving equally well in all directions, and equally responsive to all polarization of electric and/or magnetic fields.

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Lobe, Antenna: A part of the antenna radiation pattern between adjacent minima.

Lock Out: The placement of a locking out device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, ensuring that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.

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Magnetic Field Strength (H): The magnitude of the magnetic field vector, expressed in units of amperes per meter (A/m).

Measurement: The means of determining the presence of RF risks from the use of specialized equipment for the measurement of the RF, the groping and meters as electrical or magnetic. Refer also to the act of evaluating a plant or area to specific hazards, the RF, or otherwise conducting a systematic inquiry to gather data for analysis, especially for the preparation of a report or summary completion.

Mitigation: To make milder or become less severe, moderate.

MPE: Maximum Permissible Exposure to radiofrequency radiation, from the FCC standard for human exposure to RF radiation.

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NATE: The National Association of Tower Erectors.

Near Field: The portion of the electromagnetic energy field where the electric (E) and magnetic (H) components of the electromagnetic wave are in an undefined state, not in an orthogonal relationship.

NIOSH: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

Non-Ionizing: A type of energy, in the lower range of the electromagnetic spectrum, that does not have the ability to strip ions from molecules.

Nonthermal Effect: See athermal effect.

NTIA: The National Telecommunications and Information Association.

Number of Components: The number of transmitted frequencies that are used to generate the intermodulation product or hit. This is typically two or three frequencies. IM products resulting from four or more frequencies, while mathematically possible, are extreme cases, unlikely to be encountered in real world situations. Checking intermod combinations of more than three frequencies at a time will significantly increase the execution time of the intermod program.

Number of Harmonics: You must specify from one through nine harmonics of the particular transmitted frequency, that you wish to be considered as possible participating components for an intermod hit in any study. If a particular transmitter is high powered, such as TV or FM broadcast, you should consider a higher number of harmonics than if the transmitter power is relatively low. It is typical to consider up to the 7th harmonic for UHF television with an effective radiated power of 5 MW and the 3rd harmonic for a two-way repeater with a few hundred watts ERP.

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Order of Product: The sum of the absolute value of coefficients of all components of predicted intermodulation product. For example, if the intermod product generated is at 385 MHz and results from the combination of the second harmonic of 155 MHz adding with the fundamental of 75 MHz, the prediction would show as 2x(155) + 1x(75) = 385 MHz. The order of this particular product would be the sum of 2+1 or 3rd order product. The most likely hits to be generated are the lower order products, generally at or below 5th order. Checking for intermod higher than 5th order will also significantly increase the execution time of the intermod program.

Orthogonal: Having, meeting or determined at right angles.

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

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Parabolic Antenna: An antenna consisting of a parabolic reflector and a source at or near the focus. Microwave dish antenna is an example of a parabolic antenna.

PC Based Training: Supplemental training conducted with the use of computer based programs that allow a certain amount of interaction between user and training program. May not fully replace classroom or hands-on type training requirements stipulated by OSHA.

PCIA: The Wireless Infrastructure Association is the trade association representing the companies that make up the wireless telecommunications infrastructure industry.

PCS: Communications Services Personal Digital Assistant-Two-Way 1900mhz digital networks.

Peak Envelope Power (PEP): The average power supplied to the antenna transmission line by a radio transmitter during one radiofrequency cycle at the crest of the modulation envelope taken under normal operating conditions.

POCSAG: An asynchronous protocol used to transmit data to pagers.

Power Density (S): Power per unit area normal to the direction of propagation, typically expressed in units of watts per square meter (W/m2) or microwatts per square centimeter (?W/cm2).

PPC: Personal Protective Clothing, i.e., RF suits.

PPE: Personal Protection Equipment

PPM: Personal Protection Monitor

Protected Frequency: A frequency, generally a received frequency at a site, that you wish to protect from interference (can also be an IF or subcarrier frequency added to or subtracted from the carrier frequency).

PUC: Public Utility Commission.

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Qualified Person: One who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work or the project.

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Radar: A system that radiates pulsed or frequency modulated electromagnetic waves and utilizes the reflection of such waves from distant objects to determine their existence or position.

Radio Beam: Radio waves whose energy is essentially confined within a relatively small angle in at least one plane.

Radio-frequency (RF) Spectrum: Although the RF spectrum is formally defined in terms of a range from 0 to 3000 GHz, the FCC exposure guidelines range of interest is from 300 kHz to 100 GHz.

Radio-frequency Radiation Hazard Meter (monitor): An instrument that is capable of measuring spatially localized electric and/or magnetic field strengths under near and far-field conditions. The instrument consistent of a sensor with an antenna suitable for the wavelength under study, plus a means of transporting information from the sensor to a suitable field strength indicator.

Repeater: A device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances.

Re-radiated Field: An electromagnetic field resulting from currents induced in a secondary, predominately conducting object by electromagnetic waves that originate from a primary radiating source or antenna, also known as "reflective" or "scattered fields".

Real-Time Video Training: Comprehensive training employing real-time video transfer technology which enables students and teachers to interact in real time.

RF: Radio frequency.

RF Awareness: Companies must have their own safety program outlining training requirements for their workers including awareness of all site or workplace related hazards including RF radiation.

RF Hot Spot: A highly localized area of more intense RF radiation than present in an adjacent area. The localized area has more ambient RF present, which may be above the exposure limits, than in an immediately adjacent area where the ambient levels are insignificant.

RFR: Radio frequency radiation.

RF Survey: The means of determining the presence of RF risks from the use of specialized equipment for the measurement of the RF, the groping and meters as electrical or magnetic. Refer also to the act of evaluating a plant or area to specific hazards, the RF, or otherwise conducting a systematic inquiry to gather datoss for analysis, especially for the preparation of a summary report or complete.

RF Training: Complete training after there is a hazard assessment and completion of a written safety program.

RX Offset: 1/ 2 the bandwidth of the frequency spectrum you wish guarded around the protected (received) frequency when you do an intermod study. This offset frequency is the amount both below and above the protected frequency that will be checked by the intermod software to determine if any predicted products might be generated.

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Safety Plan: A program instituted by a company that provides a plan of action for limiting worker's exposure to hazards at a workplace. The implementation of a safety plan mandates implementation of training.

Safety Violation: A violation of the Code of Federal Regulations concerning worker/occupational safety.

Scattered Radiation: See re-radiated field.

Simplex Operation: Transmitting and receiving on the same frequency (non-concurrently). The TAP software is configured with the default to ignore hits that are calculated if one of the offending participating frequencies is the same as the same frequency (simplex). This can be turned off on a frequency by frequency basis, should the user wish to do so when the study is done.

SMR:  Specialized Mobile Radio On - a interconexiona dispatch and radio service for businesses that use the 220, 800 and 900MHz bands.

Spatial Averaging: A means of measuring an RF field by taking a total body average.

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR): A measure of the rate of energy that is absorbed, or dissipated in a mass of dielectric materials, such as biological tissues. Usually SAR is expressed in watts per kilogram (W/kg) or milliwatts per kilogram (mW/kg).

Spread Spectrum: Methods by which a signal (e.g. an electrical, electromagnetic, or acoustic signal) generated in a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth.

Survey Training: Training in conducting Hazard Assessments using an approved survey or measurement method employing scientific sampling instruments.

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Tag Out: The placement of a tag out device on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be removed until the tag out device is removed.

TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access - A digital air communication technology used in mobile, PC, and ESMR networks.

Thermocouple: A pair of dissimilar conductors so joined at two points that an electromotive force is developed by the thermoelectric effect when the junctions are at different temperatures.

TX Frequency: Fundamental carrier frequencies transmitted at the site that you wish to include as possible offending signal sources.

TX Offset: The maximum frequency away from the transmitted carrier which can contain modulated information.

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Uncontrolled / General Public: The FCC maximum RF exposure levels for those persons that are not fully aware of their exposure potential and cannot exercise control over their exposure.

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VSAT: A very-small-aperture terminal (VSAT), is a two-way satellite ground station or a stabilized maritime Vsat antenna with a dish antenna that is smaller than 3 meters. 

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Wave Guide: A hollow, tube shaped device constructed of metal with a vinyl or polypropylene coating, used for conducting RF energy from an emission source, such as a microwave transmitter, to an antenna.

Willful Violation: The act of knowingly committing a violation of the federal safety and health standards. A willful violation is the most serious finable offence.

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